Nathalie Loiseau, France's Europe minister, who plays a vital role in France's Brexit strategy, said Britain would have to offer reassurances that the Ireland backstop would be retained in any request to delay Brexit. Increasing numbers of pro-European MPs are calling for a second referendum with an option to cancel Brexit.
May struck a conciliatory tone after the vote, promising cross-party talks to try and salvage a workable Brexit deal before returning with a new plan next Monday. She told reporters in Berlin that "we are now waiting to see what the British prime minister proposes".
The Economist: "Theresa May prepares for a drubbing" - "Theresa May will go to the House of Commons on January 15th expecting defeat". Giving her reaction afterwards, she was barely able to contain her frustration.
What will happen if Theresa May loses the vote of no confidence?
Leadsom told the BBC the government will not be delaying or revoking Article 50, adding: "We are determined to deliver on Brexit on March 29 which is what a vast majority of Parliamentarians voted for in triggering Article 50".
"This evening's result in Parliament shows what the Labour Party has always been saying is true".
"Everything has been done in recent weeks and months to signal our interest in a positive decision", Maas said.
The mood in Parliament afterwards was surprisingly upbeat. 432 members said no to the deal, while 202 supported it.
"The thing about Theresa May is that nothing seems to faze her", he said.
Ms May now faces a no confidence vote on called by the opposition Labour Party.
"People are looking at how we can get through this next phase to find a consensus as quickly as possible", Justine Greening, a former education secretary, said in an interview. The only way forward for the country is through a People's Vote where people have the right to choose to stay in the EU.
The question is what that route forward looks like.
May has three days to outline her response to the rejected withdrawal agreement.
Almost three years later, they are still to form a majority consensus around any plan, with MPs criticising May's deal both for keeping Britain too closely tied to the European Union, and for not keeping it closer.
Supporters of European Union membership cast Brexit as a big mistake that will undermine the West, smash Britain's reputation as a stable destination for investment and slowly weaken London's position as a global capital. May also accused Corbyn of tolerating anti-semitism in the Labour Party.
Speaking to MPs in a packed out House of Commons, a fired up Mr Corbyn said: 'This is the greatest defeat for a government since 1920 in this house.
May faces a stark choice: Steer the country toward an abrupt break without a deal on future relations with the European Union, or try to nudge it toward a softer departure. "A new plan is needed immediately".
For now, Labour's priority is its attempt to trigger a general election. That would leave Mrs May tied for fifth place with Margaret Thatcher, 72 of whose MPs revolted against her plan to abolish Sunday-trading laws in 1986.
May's government is likewise split.
Opposition to the deal forced May to postpone the vote in December in the hope of winning concessions from Brussels. He called it "a high-stakes political roller-coaster ride that shows no sign of stopping".
The deal, which is meant to establish terms for the March 29 exit and beyond, has been criticized from all sides, including from within May's own party.
Brexit supporters have also voiced growing frustration with what they see as parliamentary blockage of their democratic vote.
German foreign minister Heiko Maas said Brexit talks would continue if Mrs May's deal was rejected by MPs, but there was unlikely to be "substantial" change to the agreement. "But be in no doubt that she is the architect of tonight's defeat".