Smith and Winter also managed to use evolution to the advantage of humankind by developing a technique called phage display.
Equally true is that even these stellar scientists have not found a way to invent from scratch proteins that rival the ones we see by the thousands in living cells. A biochemist by training, Frances Arnold's research is actually multi dimensional - and her work has major applications in synthetic biology. They can also be used to grab and stretch cells, and so distinguish between normal and cancerous cells, he said.
The first pharmaceutical based on Winter's work, AbbVie's adalimumab, was approved for sale in 2002. Medications for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have come from their work.
Here in the USA the gap in women earning physics degrees has stubbornly persisted.
These antibodies can neutralize toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer. Enzymes are complex proteins that make many chemical reactions possible. 'Directed evolution of enzymes and antibody technology are subjects that I have followed with keen interest; both are now transforming medicine. The genes are then inserted into bacteria, which then act as the manufacturing machines and produce randomly mutated enzymes. If we do, then we can make a billion variants of that one and repeat the process. The Omani researcher has been in Japan for three years now and she says that she has been mesmerized with the country since she was in school. Currently, her main area of focus is the production of renewable energy, with a long-term goal of creating environmentally-friendly fuel that will revolutionize the transportation sector.
"We're going to give it away, I think".
Luu herself won another prize, the Kavli Prize, in 2012 for her work on icy objects at the edge of the solar system.
He's expected to receive $250,000 in prize money.
Reached at his home in Columbia, Miss., Smith was quick to credit the work of others in earning his prize.
He concludes, "Very few research breakthroughs are novel". They share half of the 9 million kronor ($1.01 million) prize while the other half goes to Ashkin, who worked at Bell Labs in New Jersey. "And hopefully, in time, it'll start to move forward at a faster rate", Strickland said in a phone call with the academy after the prize announcement.
"The resulting treatments, known as immune checkpoint blockade, have "fundamentally changed the outcome" for some advanced cancer patients", the Nobel institute said.
Winter says he realized afterward there was a "moral imperative" to ensure "what was produced could be used for public benefit".
In becoming the first women Nobel physics laureate in 55 years, Strickland won acclaim from her peers, who were keen to point out the boundary-pushing work done by female scientists across the world.
Strickland, despite her illustrious career and work on short-pulse optical beams that is now used in laser eye surgery, is still a junior professor at the University of Waterloo in Ontario.
Medicine is the first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year. Allison on winning the Nobel Prize after receiving the KFP this year.
But, as the list of winners of the different Nobels for Physics and Chemistry show, it might be better for the Nobel Prize Committee to actually consider giving prizes for the sciences in general, instead of segregating them into Physics and Chemistry prizes and not having a biology prize.