Vettel's front wing was damaged when he was passed by Max Verstappen of Red Bull at the start, the Dutchman running in a strong second place until he retired with electrical problems after 11 laps.
Hamilton had also struggled in Sochi, where he finished fourth, and that track and Monte Carlo share characteristics with Canada - low-grip, low-abrasion tracks with short duration corners and where the tyre selection of the softest rubber was also the same.
"To come here and to deliver what we have delivered is a great blow to the Ferraris".
"If Ferrari do that to us, it is a blow, it is like a right hook, but the punches will continue throughout the year, and we just hope at the end of it we will be like Mayweather".
Hamilton's victory, built on an equally outstanding "Senna-esque" lap for his 65th pole position on Saturday, lifted him to within 12 points of Vettel in the drivers' championship while Mercedes regained the lead in the constructors' contest, eight points ahead of Ferrari.
"It was a reality check in Monaco", said Hamilton. "We ran the simulator 24/7 for 10 days in a row. When I went to the Mercedes factory on the Thursday after Monaco, the engineers were still conducting that analysis, so all I could do was ask further questions and give more feedback".
One of the problems was the wind tunnel gave them one reading and the simulator gave them a different and along with that a mistake in setting up their vehicle which prevented them getting Pirelli's supersoft and ultrasoft tires working in their limited temperature windows.
"I knew where Sebastian was throughout the race", said Hamilton, who crossed the line a commanding 20 seconds clear of Bottas. "It was really down to the team, great minds working together, communicating". "If you give Lewis a vehicle that he likes he is just stellar", he said. Nobody took a weekend off in that group and there are no silver bullets in the sport. We looked at all areas.
"The championship is still long enough".
The next round in Azerbaijan takes place on 25 June and Hamilton can head into it with more confidence but insists he and the team will continue the efforts that have engendered their turnaround.
"But we learned a lot from Monaco and we learned a lot this weekend".
"Sebastian has had a one-two, one-two everywhere, so it is good that he now has had a fourth and we are still in the fight".